Why Does an Octopus Have Ink?

Whenever I visit the Aquarium, I always fall in love with the jellyfish and the octopi.  Watching an octopus move is just so mesmerizing!  They are also known to be very intelligent creatures.  And like most squid, they have an ink sac (which is so very cool if you have ever dissected a squid).   In this quick, simple, activity, your superheroes are going to observe and explore why squid have an ink sac.

Here’s what you need to get started:

  • water
  • 1 clear glass
  • 1 small cup
  • black food color/watercolor/paint
  • dropper (I always save the ones I get from the pharmacist!)
  • small plastic octopus toy
  • small plastic shark (optional)

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In the small cup, mix some water with black paint/food coloring or water color.  I had none of those so I mixed red and blue food coloring to make a dark purple.  This will be the “ink”

Fill a clear glass halfway with water.  Add the plastic octopus to the water.

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Discuss how the octopus looks in the water.

Using the toy shark, I showed my son that a predator was approaching the octopus.  What was the shark going to do?  What could the octopus do to protect itself?

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Using the dropper, add “ink” to the glass with the octopus.  This models that the octopus will release dark ink as a defense mechanism.  What happens to the water as the ink is added?  Can you see the octopus?

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After some discussion, my son decided to play with the shark and the octopus and ink.  It kept him busy for awhile as he engaged in pretend play and the narrative he added was so cute to listen to.

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Extension: Try this in a large shallow dish by adding the shark and the octopus.  Add the ink just on top of the octopus.  What happens to the ink?  Can squirting ink alone help the octopus protect itself?  What other defense mechanisms might they need to help protect them from predators?

The Science behind the Activity:

This little activity is a simple model of how an octopus, like most squid (but not all squid) use an ink sac as a form of a secondary defense mechanism.  By squirting the ink, the predator gets confused AND the ink often has a smell associated with it that also deters predators.  With the smell and the spray shocking the predator, it allows the octopus to use its quick tentacles to escape before the ink dissipates.

To see where I got my idea from, click on the following link:

http://www.learnplayimagine.com/2013/02/mfw-kindergarten-oo-octopus.html

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Simplified Ocean Zones in a Bottle (3 Zones)

If you’ve ever tried the liquid layers in a jar, here is a great twist for showing your superheroes the layers in the ocean.  This is the simplified version of Ocean Zones in a Jar but has only the top 3 ocean zones (layers) where much of the well-known marine life exists.  It is also easier for the youngest superheroes to do.

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • Light Karo syrup (corn syrup) – tinted black or dark purple OR Dark Karo Syrup (no tinting needed)
  • Water tinted light blue
  • Vegetable oil – tinted blue-green (if possible)
  • Dropper
  • Funnel
  • food color (or liquid watercolors)
  • empty water bottle

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First add about 2-3 inches of corn syrup to the bottle.  Add some black/dark purple color to it and mix well.  (For my Tiny Tot class, I tried the dark Karo syrup and it worked great since we didn’t have to tint it black) This represents the deep ocean zone known as the Midnight Zone

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Carefully add the blue water on top (don’t tint it too dark) until you have about the same thickness as the corn syrup.  You should see the 2 distinct layers.  This represents the Twilight Zone of the Ocean.

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The top layer is the oil.  Food color and watercolor will not dissolve in oil since they are water based and oil and water don’t mix.

Regular food color will NOT mix with oil

Regular food color will NOT mix with oil

For this layer, you have 2 options: leave it yellow OR if you have candy food color (oil-based food color) then you can use that to tint the oil.

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Either way, you will definitely get a distinct layer on top of the water.  I used the candy color to get a greenish-bluish color.

Oil-based candy color WILL mix with oil

Oil-based candy color WILL mix with oil

This layer represents the Sunlight Zone, the part of the ocean where most marine life exist.

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All done!  You can also add labels to the outside of the jar to show your superheroes the layers.

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Visually you can see how the layers (ocean zones) get darker as you go deeper.   You can discuss with your little ones what effect this might have on the marine life that lives in each layer.

Extension: This activity goes really well with my Exploring Life in the Ocean Zones activity.

Extension for older kids: For older kids with a bit more hand control (and less likely to shake the bottle!) try the full version of Ocean Zones in a Jar  with all 5 layers of the Ocean.

The Science behind the Activity:

There’s all sorts of awesome science in this activity!  This is a great visual representation of how the layers of the ocean have varying amounts of light reaching them.  This can open up an entire discussion of why there are so many more organisms in the Sunlight Zone and the Twilight Zone versus the Midnight Zone.  You can even research what types of organisms exist in each layer.

In reality, there are 2 more zones below the Midnight Zone: the Abyss and the Trench.  For obvious reasons, there aren’t many known organisms that live there.  And the ones that do are unfamiliar to young children.  But for older children, it would be great to show them how deep the ocean really goes.

The other awesome science in this activity has to do with the different densities of various liquids.  Liquids that are more dense (more mass per volume) will sink and liquids will lower densities will float on top of denser ones.  If you have ever tried to mix oil and water, well, you know why that won’t work because oil is less dense than water.  This is why you have to shake your favorite salad dressings before pouring.

Here’s where I got my original idea from and then I shortened it to make it easier for toddlers and preschoolers: http://www.icanteachmychild.com/make-ocean-zones-jar/

 

 

Mayflower Boats

Here’s a super easy craft that you can make with your kids that also allows for some science exploration.  I call these Mayflower Boats because we made them during Thanksgiving, but really you could adapt this for anytime of the year.  There are SO many ways you can use these little boats and so much learning to be had.  I had a chance to do this with my son’s class and the kids had a BLAST!  So grab a few supplies and let the kids busy themselves while you get some of that Thanksgiving cooking done!

Materials Needed per boat:

  • 2-3 wine corks  (If you are a parent, I’m SURE you can easily go through a bottle or 2 of wine on those “trying” days!)
  • 1 rubber band
  • coffee stirrer, wooden skewer, or craft stick
  • paper, cardstock or foam sheet to make the sails
  • scissors
  • glue
  • Straw
  • Bin with water (we added blue water color for fun)

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To make the Boat:

Place a rubber band around 2 to 3 pieces of cork to make the base of the raft.

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Using white paper, card stock or foam sheets, cut out sails to make it look like the Mayflower (for Thanksgiving) or any shape you want at other times of the year.  Attach them to the mast with glue.  Allow the glue to dry.

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Add a a craft stick or coffee stirrer to create the mast.  We just tucked ours in between 2 pieces of cork but you could certainly use a wooden skewer to stick it into the cork to make it more secure.

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Voila! There’s your little Mayflower boat.  Now it’s time for some science exploration!

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To explore with the boats:

We talked briefly about the pilgrims who journeyed across the ocean from England to America on the Mayflower.  I told them that our boats represented the Mayflower and the Bin with water represented the ocean that they traveled across. (You can totally omit this for a non-Thanksgiving lesson)

I then gave each child their own bin with blue water (yes, I added blue watercolor because colors make everything more fun!) and had them place their boats in and explore.

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Immediately the kids used their hands to make waves, dropped their boats from up high and watch them splash in the water and still float.  Some noticed that their boats floated upside down.

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Then I gave them straws to blow on the sails to make the boats move.  What i didn’t anticipate (and I obviously should have) was that the kids put the straws in the water and started blowing bubbles because “bubbles make waves happen”, according to one little guy.

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Oh the storms and waves and hurricanes that they created.  And loads of splashing and giggling.

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Since we are in the middle of a sever drought in California, we weren’t able to use water and rain gutters to do races and explore the effect of an incline on the speed of the boats.  But that would be a fantastic extension for this activity!

You could also have the kids race their boats across a large tub of water, in the bathtub or in a small wading pool.  Again, due to our drought, none of these were possible for the class.

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Science behind the activity and Extensions:

This activity is great for investigating and exploring. “What happens if I…?” is the best part of this activity.  By blowing on the sails, the kids can see how the wind can “push” a boat along.  For older kids, you can certainly introduce Newton’s Laws of motion to explain how the boat moves.  You can even introduce simple weather concepts and see how they affect the movement of the boat from a windstorm to waves to whirpools, etc… There are so many extensions for this activity.  Encourage your kids to test out different materials for the boat (craft sticks, styrofoam, plastic cups, clay, etc…) or different materials for the sails (paper, foam, felt, etc…).

For more details and to see where I got my ideas from click on the 2 links below.  I merged the 2 activities together to create this one.

http://www.fantasticfunandlearning.com/mayflower-craft-and-science-activity.html

http://www.science-sparks.com/2015/02/21/materials-make-best-boat/

For another fun boat activity, check out What Floats Your Boat? on my Density/Floating page.

 

 

Travel on Sand (or Snow)

My son asked me for money to buy a book at the school book fair.  I assumed he would purchase a Star Wars or Superhero type book.  I was correct.  BUT, it was a Star Wars Science Fair Book so I was pretty impressed at his choice.  We are slowly trying out some of the classic experiments in the book with a Star Wars twist but seriously they can be done without the Star Wars connection.

This particular investigation explores how to travel in the desert/snowy environments of the planets that the Star Wars characters live on.  We added some of our own extensions to this as well.  Super easy to get this set up!

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Here’s what you need to get started:

  • box or container (we use the plastic shoeboxes from the dollar store)
  • enough sand to fill the container about 1/2 full
  • cardboard (we used leftover cardboard from our multiple Amazon deliveries)
  • scissors
  • jar lid
  • dime or penny
  • pencil

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Before starting this activity, I asked my son how it feels to walk on the sand at the beach.  Is it hard to walk?  What happens to your feet as you step in the sand?  I then had him take the pencil and press gently into the box of sand and obviously, the pencil immediately sank in.

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Next we used the jar lid and coin to draw 2 circles of different sizes.

IMG_2665I helped him cut the circles out of the cardboard since it was so thick and difficult for him to do on his own.

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Next, he placed the small cardboard circle on the sand and used the pencil eraser to apply some pressure as before.  We repeated with the larger circle.

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The smaller circle did eventually begin to sink into sand but not like the pencil did.  The large circle did not sink at all.  I asked my son why he thought that was.  I asked him if it hurts more to poke him with a sharp pencil or with my flat palm.  I asked him some probing questions and then it led us to talking about skis and snowboards and why they don’t sink in the snow.  So guess what?  We cut out skis and snowboards out of the cardboard to test out his theory.

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The snowboard did pretty well under pressure.
IMG_2675The skis buckled a bit (more due to the cardboard bending than the shape/surface area) but still didn’t sink.

We tried out snowshoe shapes as well (my son thought they looked more like tennis rackets…sigh).  Those held up pretty well, too.

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This simple experiment was really so easy but led to some fantastic discussion and experimentation with my son and I.  I thought it was going to take us 5 minutes but by the time we tested all our shapes and discussed his theories and the science behind it all, it was 45 minutes!  Wow!  Time flies when learning is FUN!

And lastly, the Lego Star Wars Minifigures went into the box for some playtime:)

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The Science behind the activity:

In physics, students are taught that a force applied over a given area results in pressure or P=F/A.  The greater the force applied, the greater the pressure.  BUT, if you increase the area over which the force is applied, you can REDUCE the pressure.  This is why it hurts more when someone steps on you with the tip of a high heel versus a flat shoe.  Or why it hurts more if your little brother pokes you with a toy sword versus a toy shield (I am not promoting violence but I do live with three little boys…)  It’s why you don’t sink in the snow with skis or on a snowboard but leave deep shoe prints while walking with just your boots.  It depends on how your body weight is being distributed over a small or large area.

Extension: Have your child make large cardboard or wooden versions of these that they can put on their feet and test it on in a sandbox.  Do you get the same results?

For more details and to see where I got this idea from check out this fantastic book we got from the book fair Star Wars Science Fair Book by Samantha Margles and sold by Scholastic Books.

Exploring Life in the Ocean Zones

Want to explore which organisms live in the various “zones” of the ocean?  Here’s a fairly simply activity to put together.  Depending on how you make it, you can use it once or make a re-usable one.  I’ll explain how to make both versions.

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • 5 sheets of blue paper in varying shades (dark to light)
  • box of ocean creatures (We used Terra Sea Animals) OR  box of ocean life stickers (We also used these Deep Sea Foam Stickers)
  • Glue and scissors
  • Sheet protector (optional)

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Cut the sheets of blue paper into thick strips and layer them on top of each other with glue so that you have 5 strips going from lightest (top) to darkest (bottom).  I glued my dark strip at the bottom first and then layered the rest on top.

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The five layers represent the 5 ocean zones.  I labeled them and then slipped the sheet into a sheet protector.

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I printed out a reference sheet with the 5 ocean zones and the organisms that live at each level.  We discussed why there are more animals in the Sunlight Zone than in the Trench.  Then he used the sea animals to place them at each of the different levels.  (This is where you could use the sea life stickers instead of the animals) We identified what the animal was and why they lived at the various levels.  The discussion I had with my 4 year old son was amazing!

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That’s it!  It was so simple to put together!  And really, the best part was when my 6 year old came home from school, my 4 year old explained the entire thing to him!  He named the zones and explained why the zones were darker at the bottom and lighter at the top and how there was more food at the top than at the bottom of the ocean.  I was blown away!

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Science behind the activity:

There are 5 major zones of the ocean:

  • Sunlight Zone (Epipelagic)
  • Twilight Zone (Mesopelagic)
  • Midnight Zone (Bathypelagic)
  • Abyss (Abyssopelagic)
  • Trench (Hadalpelagic)

Obviously the Sunlight zone receives the most sunlight and is the warmest of the ocean zones and therefore more marine life exists there.  As the ocean depth increases, less sunlight penetrates through the water and it is darker and colder with less marine life there.  BUT, there are still MANY different organisms present at the deeper zones and they thrive in the dark and the cold and they have some unique adaptations as well.  With older children, you could research this in more depth.

Extension:

This activity goes really well with the Ocean Zones in a Jar activity.  You can actually see how the layers of the ocean get darker as you go deeper and it’s a great visual for kids (as well as several science concepts wrapped up into one activity!)

Ocean Zones in a Jar

If you’ve ever tried the liquid layers in a jar, here is a great twist for showing your superheroes the layers in the ocean.  This activity definitely requires some help from an adult to do but my preschoolers really enjoyed watching the layers stack on top of each other.  Older kids will love doing it on their own. ( I also have Simplified Ocean Zones in a Bottle for the youngest superheroes as the layers in this one can get tricky at the end.)

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • Light Karo syrup (corn syrup) – tinted black or dark purple OR Dark Karo Syrup (no tinting needed)
  • Blue dish soap
  • Water tinted light blue
  • Vegetable oil – tinted blue-green (if possible)
  • Rubbing alcohol (91% works best)
  • Dropper
  • Funnel
  • food color (or liquid watercolors)
  • glass jar (I used a pint sized glass jar)

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First add about 1-1.5 inches of corn syrup to the jar.  Add some black/dark purple color to it and mix well.  (For my Tiny Tot class, I tried the dark Karo syrup and it worked great since we didn’t have to tint it black) This represents the deepest ocean zone, the Trench.

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Carefully add the blue dish soap on top of the corn syrup layer.  The layers should not mix.  This second layer represents the Abyss.

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Next carefully add the blue water.  Don’t tint it too dark.  The water layer should sit right on top of the dish soap creating 3 distinct layers. The water layer represents the Midnight Zone of the Ocean.

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The next layer will be the oil.  Food color and watercolor will not dissolve in oil since they are water based and oil and water don’t mix.

Regular food color will NOT mix with oil

Regular food color will NOT mix with oil

For this layer, you have 2 options: leave it yellow OR if you have candy food color (oil-based food color) then you can use that to tint the oil.

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Either way, you will definitely get a distinct layer on top of the water.  I used the candy color to get a greenish-bluish color.

Oil-based candy color WILL mix with oil

Oil-based candy color WILL mix with oil

This layer represents the Twilight Zone.

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The last layer is a bit tricky.  The rubbing alcohol to use should be 91%.  The 50% definitely didn’t work and the 70% was not too successful either.  We poured some rubbing alcohol into a cup first.

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Use a dropper to slowly add the rubbing alcohol  by touching the edge of the jar so that it drips down the side.  Be careful not to let it break through the oil layer or else it will mix with the water.  It will be slow-going but will slowly reveal a clear layer on top of the oil layer.  This layer represents the Sunlight Zone, the part of the ocean where most marine life exist.

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All done!  You can also add labels to the outside of the jar to show your superheroes the layers.

Visually you can see how the layers (ocean zones) get darker as you go deeper.  From the picture it is hard to tell that the layers are getting darker at the top (the oil looks darker than it actually is). You can discuss with your little ones what effect this might have on the marine life that lives in each layer.

The Science behind the Activity:

There’s all sorts of awesome science in this activity!  This is a great visual representation of how the layers of the ocean have varying amounts of light reaching them.  This can open up an entire discussion of why there are so many more organisms in the Sunlight Zone and the Twilight Zone versus the Abyss and the Trench.  You can even research what types of organisms exist in each layer.

The other awesome science in this activity has to do with the different densities of various liquids.  Liquids that are more dense (more mass per volume) will sink and liquids will lower densities will float on top of denser ones.  If you have ever tried to mix oil and water, well, you know why that won’t work because oil is less dense than water.  This is why you have to shake your favorite salad dressings before pouring.

Here’s where I got my idea from: http://www.icanteachmychild.com/make-ocean-zones-jar/

Extension: This activity goes really well with my Exploring Life in the Ocean Zones activity.

Ocean in a Bottle

For my ocean themed class, I thought it would be fun to make an ocean discovery bottle.  If your kids love to collect shells and rocks and the beach (like mine do), this is a perfect extension activity for when you get home.  This is an easy activity for the kiddos to do and there are so many fun ways to play and learn with them.  And there are so many variations you can add to yours.

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • Empty water bottle with a cap
  • Funnel
  • Water tinted light blue
  • Sand (we used play sand since that’s what I had at home)
  • Sea shells that are small enough to fit inside a water bottle (I picked up a pack at Michael’s but you could use some that you’ve collected at the beach yourself)
  • Little fish/sea creature figurines (I couldn’t find any that were small enough to fit through the mouth of our bottle)
  • Foam ocean stickers/shapes (we peeled the backing off the stickers since I couldn’t find just the foam shapes)IMG_1675

First we added about 2 inches of sand to an empty water bottle.  We used a funnel to make it easier.

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Then they added the sea shells.

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Next we added the foam shapes after peeling the paper backings off them.  We didn’t want to “pollute” our ocean:)

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Using a funnel, the boys added the blue ocean water to the bottle.  Screw the cap on.  (You can also use a hot glue gun to attach the cap so it can’t be opened)

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And THEN the fun began.  Almost immediately, my middle son started shaking his bottle.

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My oldest son decided to roll his bottle and make waves.  They tried to find their sea animals and sea shells.

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That’s it!  So easy!  And lots of shaking going on over here!

The Science behind the Activity:

Discovery bottles are great for toddlers and preschoolers as it gives them a chance to explore cause and effect.  “If I shake this bottle, what will happen?”  For preschoolers and a bit older, you can discuss the motion of water and waves.  A variation to this is to make it with oil and water instead of sand and water and you can discuss concepts such as density and why water and oil don’t mix.  Endless options!  What variations have you tried?