Dancing Candy Hearts

Around Valentine’s Day, my kids get lots of those candy conversation hearts.  I remember as a kid, I loved reading the messages on them.  The messages are a bit different these days (“Text me”?)  Save a few of those hearts to do this quick 5 minute science experiment.  Use up some candy, do a little science, watch a little dance.

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • Candy Conversation Hearts
  • Tall clear glass (we used a tall glass and a test tube)
  • Baking Soda
  • Vinegar
  • Water
  • Measuring spoon

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Add 1 cup of water to a clear tall glass or tall test tube.  You can color yours purple or red for Valentine’s Day but that is totally optional.

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Add in 2 teaspoons of baking soda and mix well.

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Add a few candy hearts to the glass.

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We used one of each color.img_0620Watch the hearts sink to the bottom of the glass.
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Add about 1/4 cup of vinegar to the glass slowly (or else it will will overflow!)

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Watch the candy hearts dance… or in our case, only the pink and orange hearts danced.  The rest stayed happily at the bottom of the glass.img_0627

It really looked so cool watching the hearts float up and then sink down.

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We will definitely be trying this again by testing the different colored hearts separately, testing different brands and testing different fizzy liquids to see if any of those change how the hearts behave.

For more Valentine’s Science Activities, try these:

For more floating and sinking activities, try these:

The Science Behind the Activity:

This is a great experiment demonstrating sinking and floating.  The hearts are denser than the liquid so they initially sink when you put them in.  When the vinegar is added, the reaction creates carbon dioxide gas.  As the carbon dioxide gas bubbles attach to the surface of the hearts, they decrease the density of the hearts and the hearts float to the top.  At the surface of the liquid, the gas bubbles pop and the hearts sink back down.  The process keeps repeating until there isn’t enough carbon dioxide left to raise the hearts.

To see where I got the idea from and more details, follow the link below:

http://inspirationlaboratories.com/valentine-candy-science-dancing-hearts/

 

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Hopping Corn and Cranberries

Just in time for Thanksgiving, I’ve got a fun quickie experiment to do with your cranberries and some popcorn kernels.  If you’ve tried my Dancing Raisins experiment, then this will be familiar.

Here’s what you’ll need to get started:

  • Dried Cranberries
  • Popcorn kernels
  • Soda water, Ginger Ale, Sprite, Club Soda, sparkling water or whatever clear bubbly (kid-friendly!) you have at home
  • clear jars or cups

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I asked the tots to touch the dried cranberries and the popcorn kernels and describe how each felt.

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For younger tots, I prompted them with simple questions such as:

  • Is it soft or hard?
  • Is it smooth or bumpy?
  • Is it sticky or slimy?

Fill one cup with water and one cup with soda (we used diet Ginger Ale because that’s what we have at home), but any clear bubbly soda should work fine.

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We also compared the difference between the soda and the water.  They immediately noted the difference in color and the presence of bubbles in the soda.

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Next, I asked them what they thought would happen if the cranberries were added to the water? They all thought they would sink to the bottom.  After making their predictions, they added the cranberries to test their theories.

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Yes, the cranberries sunk to the bottom.

I then asked them what they thought would happen if the cranberries were put in the soda.  They again thought that they would sink.

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So they did sink… at first.  But then they “hopped” to the surface… and then dropped again… and rose again.

We repeated the same steps with the popcorn kernels.  When we added the popcorn kernels to the water, they sank as well.

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Then we added them to the Ginger Ale.  And discovered that the popcorn kernels did the same thing!

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It was mesmerizing to watch them “hop” up and down.

We will definitely be trying this again with several other sodas and sparkling water!  You can also make a bubbly solution with vinegar and baking soda as well.

Another extension/variation of this experiment is to try out different items, other than cranberries that might behave in a similar way, such as raisins, dried macaroni, etc…  Search your pantry.  The options are endless.  Happy Hopping!

Also, try my Dancing Raisins experiment for a different twist to a similar activity!

The Science behind the Activity:

This is a great experiment demonstrating sinking and floating.  Cranberries are denser than the liquid so they initially sink when you put them in.  As the carbon dioxide gas bubbles attach to the surface of the cranberries, they decrease the density of the cranberry and the cranberry floats to the top (dances and shimmies its way to the top!) At the surface of the liquid, the gas bubbles pop and the cranberry sinks back down.  The process keeps repeating until there isn’t enough carbon dioxide left to raise the cranberries.  The same holds true for the popcorn kernels.

 

Orange Float or Sink?

Here’s a simple snack time experiment!  All you need is water, a glass and a Clementine (or Cuties, as my kiddos call them).  Takes only a few minutes.

Here’s what you need to get started:

  • small oranges like mandarins or clementines
  • Tall glass with water

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Ask your kids to predict what they think will happen when you place the orange in the water.

Add the orange to the water and observe.  Were their predictions correct?

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Peel the orange.  Now predict what will happen when you place the unpeeled orange into the water.

Add the unpeeled orange to the water and observe.  Were their predictions correct?  Ask them why the orange behaved differently with and without the peel.

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From these results, the boys wanted to know if it was just the peel that floated, so we tested that as well.

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The peels floated at the top as well.  What’s going on? We discussed the differences between the peel and the orange.  Is there air inside the orange?  What is special about the peel that it floats and also causes the entire orange to float?  Since the boys and I have done several floating and sinking experiments together, they immediately suggested that air and density had something to do with our observations.

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This was a great investigation on floating and sinking using oranges and a great snack time “quickie” science experiment!

The Science behind the Activity:

Oranges contain quite a bit of air inside them which causes the overall density of the orange to be less than that of water, so it floats.  Also, the peel keeps the water from getting inside the orange.  Once the peel is removed, water can enter through the membranes of the orange slices and will cause the orange to increase in density and sink.

For a more complicated explanation involving buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle (a concept that is more challenging for most toddlers and preschoolers to understand) please visit the link where I got my idea from: http://www.playdoughtoplato.com/orange-buoyancy-science-experiment/ 

 

Peeps Sailboats

How many Peeps did your kids (or maybe, you?) inhale over Easter?  Don’t eat them all!  Set up a little water science activity with some of the Peeps! Your dentist will thank me for this!  Just some simple supplies from around the house is all you need to keep your littles one sugar-free, occupied and sticky.

Here’s what you need to get started:

  • Peeps
  • Bin of water
  • Scissors
  • Different materials for sails (We used: felt, foam, construction paper and cardstock)
  • Toothpicks
  • Tape

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Cut out triangle shaped sails out of the different materials.  My older superheroes were able to do this on their own, but for the tots in my class, I cut them ahead of time.

Attach a sail to the toothpick with the tape.

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Place the sail into a Peep and repeat with the different materials. IMG_1315 We ended up with 4 Peeps sailboats, each with a different type of sail.IMG_1317

Now it’s time to test the different sails by placing them in the water.  We used small bins, but it would be fun to do in a water table or a small plastic wading pool.

They started blowing on the sails to see how they move

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Some tipped over, others moved quickly, and one barely moved.

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They raced with each other.

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Eventually, they started playing with them and ended up all sticky!IMG_1327

We also noticed that the combination of blue and yellow Peeps in the water turned it green!

The science behind the activity:

There is plenty of room for experimentation with this activity

  • Which of the materials make the best sails?
  • Which spot is the best place to insert the sail?  Do some spots make the boat tip over easier than others?
  • How does the wind affect the movement of the boat?
  • Why do the Peeps float?
  • Might different shapes of sails affect the movement of the boat?
  • Try different types of Peeps (Bunnies vs. Chicks)  How do the different shapes of the Peeps affect their movement and the placement of the sails?

In a larger container of water, races are fun and a discussion of which boats floated the farthest or fastest involves plenty of critical thinking.

For more details and to see where I got my Peep-y idea from, please visit:  http://www.kidsplaybox.com/science-for-kids-easter-science-with-peeps-boats/

Check out my other science activity using Peeps: Dissolving Peeps Experiment

Sink the Pots of Gold!

I set this experiment up in about 3 minutes for my 3 superheroes and they are STILL laughing and playing as I write this blog post!  So easy, so fun and perfect for the warm late winter’s afternoon we have right now in Mid-March.  I’m using Pots of Gold since St. Patrick’s Day is tomorrow, but this can be done with any plastic cup or small container and rocks or pennies.

Here’s what you need to get started:

  • Bin for the water (I use plastic shoebox bins from the Dollar Store)
  • Food coloring (optional – I used green for this activity)
  • Candy Kettles (any party store has them seasonally) or any small plastic cup
  • Rocks (I painted mine gold for St. Patrick’s Day)
  • Pennies (we needed almost 100!)

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I set up the tray for them

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I had the boys place one gold nugget in the water and watch it sink.  Then they placed the kettle in the water and it floated.

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Next, I asked them to add the gold to the pot until it sank.

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My littlest one loved this.  He also practiced his counting!  (He can only go up to 5 so I used BIG rocks for him) Looks like the pot is almost about to sink!

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Oh no!  Too much gold!  The pot sank!

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The boys had so much fun playing with this!  My eldest son used pennies in his pot.  It took him over 50 pennies!

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I had a BIG mess on the floor.  So, I recommend doing this outside 🙂

This activity is a St. Patrick’s version of my original floating activity: What Floats Your Boat?

The Science behind the Activity:

When doing this experiment with older kids, I discuss the concept of buoyancy, which is the ability of an object to float when placed in a fluid.  Surface area greatly affects the buoyancy of an object.  The larger surface area allows the force (weight of the gold/pennies) to be spread out over a larger area, thus allowing the pot to float even with the “treasures”. The larger surface area displaces more water.  This is why a large hull in a ship is able to float on water.  And if the ship is floating on salt water (like the ocean) it can carry even more cargo since salt water is denser than pure water.  It’s a bit more complicated than my simplified explanation, but hopefully you get the point.  And for the little ones, it’s just fun to sink the pots and get wet:)

For more details and to see where I got my idea from, please visit: http://littlebinsforlittlehands.com/st-patricks-day-sink-float-science-experiment-with-pennies/

For more St. Patrick’s Day Science, check out the following activities:

 

Cranberry Science

It’s almost Thanksgiving and it’s time to make the cranberry sauce and why not throw in a quick bit of science while the kids help you make the sauce?  Cranberry sauce is quick and easy to make at home and we took some time to explore some fun with cranberries.  (When I mentioned this to my mother, she groaned and said, “Why do you have to find science in everything?”  To which I replied, “Because science is in everything we do!”)

Here’s what you need to get started:

  • fresh cranberries
  • dried cranberries
  • glasses (I used some old jam jars)
  • ginger ale (or any carbonated clear drink)
  • knife (for adult use only)IMG_4174

Fresh vs. Dried Cranberries:

I had the boys compare the dried and fresh cranberries.  They held it in their hands and noticed that the fresh ones were round, smooth, shiny and hard.  The dried ones were “bendy”, wrinkled, bumpy and darker in color.  Then they tasted them.  You should have seen my son’s face when he tasted the fresh cranberries! (He spit it out so quickly that I couldn’t get a picture!)

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Then I asked them what they thought would happen if we put both kinds of cranberries in water.  My middle son guessed that they would both sink.

IMG_4178 So, why do the fresh cranberries float and the dried cranberries sink?  We decided to cut a fresh cranberry open to see if that might give us any clues.

IMG_4180 Aha! If you look closely, you can see that cranberries are filled with air pockets.  This allows them to float in water.  The dried cranberries don’t have any air in them and so they sink.

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My eldest son decided to keep a record of our experimentation and our results.

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After observing the cranberries in the water, my middle son wondered if the cranberries would “dance” in soda like raisins do.  (Check out my “Dancing Raisins” and “Hopping Corn and Cranberries”  5-minute activities to see what he’s referring to.  Super easy and perfect for the holidays when there’s plenty of soda around!)

So, of course, I grabbed a can of ginger ale and we added fresh cranberries and dried cranberries and observed what happened.

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The cranberries DID dance, but not the same way as the raisins did.  I LOVE that my son was able to make the connection to an experiment we did awhile ago.  I guess they DO pay attention to their mom… sometimes.

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Making Cranberry Sauce:

Tomorrow is Thanksgiving and I asked my sister-in-law if I could make the cranberry sauce, specifically so I could justify buying a bag of fresh cranberries to use to investigate.  So, I had my middle son help me make the sauce.  Measuring  is a great math skill and pouring and mixing carefully are great to develop fine motor skills.  I try to include my kids in cooking/baking whenever I can, even if it takes me 3 times as long to complete my task.

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The fun part came when we added the cranberries to the sugar/water mixture.

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As my son mixed, he heard some “popping” sounds.  As we looked carefully at the pot, he noticed the cranberries were “exploding”.

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So I asked him why that might be happening.  This was a great way to bring back the concept that cranberries are filled with air pockets and when the air heats up, they have to get out of the cranberries so they “explode”.

He also noticed the sauce getting thicker and not so watery.  We talked about how the water was evaporating into steam and the cranberries were also helping to thicken up the sauce.

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And now we’re ready for some turkey to go with our sauce!  Happy Thanksgiving!

The Science behind the Activity:

Who would have thought there was so much learning to be had from cranberries? Cooking/baking are great ways to expose children to how things can change when heated up, mixed, etc…  It’s a great time to bring in math concepts such as measuring and for the little ones, fine motor skills such as pouring and mixing.

Comparing the dried and fresh cranberries brings in the concept of observing changes and comparing/contrasting different items.  By cutting open the cranberry, we were able to explain why fresh cranberries float in water.

 

Mayflower Boats

Here’s a super easy craft that you can make with your kids that also allows for some science exploration.  I call these Mayflower Boats because we made them during Thanksgiving, but really you could adapt this for anytime of the year.  There are SO many ways you can use these little boats and so much learning to be had.  I had a chance to do this with my son’s class and the kids had a BLAST!  So grab a few supplies and let the kids busy themselves while you get some of that Thanksgiving cooking done!

Materials Needed per boat:

  • 2-3 wine corks  (If you are a parent, I’m SURE you can easily go through a bottle or 2 of wine on those “trying” days!)
  • 1 rubber band
  • coffee stirrer, wooden skewer, or craft stick
  • paper, cardstock or foam sheet to make the sails
  • scissors
  • glue
  • Straw
  • Bin with water (we added blue water color for fun)

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To make the Boat:

Place a rubber band around 2 to 3 pieces of cork to make the base of the raft.

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Using white paper, card stock or foam sheets, cut out sails to make it look like the Mayflower (for Thanksgiving) or any shape you want at other times of the year.  Attach them to the mast with glue.  Allow the glue to dry.

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Add a a craft stick or coffee stirrer to create the mast.  We just tucked ours in between 2 pieces of cork but you could certainly use a wooden skewer to stick it into the cork to make it more secure.

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Voila! There’s your little Mayflower boat.  Now it’s time for some science exploration!

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To explore with the boats:

We talked briefly about the pilgrims who journeyed across the ocean from England to America on the Mayflower.  I told them that our boats represented the Mayflower and the Bin with water represented the ocean that they traveled across. (You can totally omit this for a non-Thanksgiving lesson)

I then gave each child their own bin with blue water (yes, I added blue watercolor because colors make everything more fun!) and had them place their boats in and explore.

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Immediately the kids used their hands to make waves, dropped their boats from up high and watch them splash in the water and still float.  Some noticed that their boats floated upside down.

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Then I gave them straws to blow on the sails to make the boats move.  What i didn’t anticipate (and I obviously should have) was that the kids put the straws in the water and started blowing bubbles because “bubbles make waves happen”, according to one little guy.

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Oh the storms and waves and hurricanes that they created.  And loads of splashing and giggling.

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Since we are in the middle of a sever drought in California, we weren’t able to use water and rain gutters to do races and explore the effect of an incline on the speed of the boats.  But that would be a fantastic extension for this activity!

You could also have the kids race their boats across a large tub of water, in the bathtub or in a small wading pool.  Again, due to our drought, none of these were possible for the class.

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Science behind the activity and Extensions:

This activity is great for investigating and exploring. “What happens if I…?” is the best part of this activity.  By blowing on the sails, the kids can see how the wind can “push” a boat along.  For older kids, you can certainly introduce Newton’s Laws of motion to explain how the boat moves.  You can even introduce simple weather concepts and see how they affect the movement of the boat from a windstorm to waves to whirpools, etc… There are so many extensions for this activity.  Encourage your kids to test out different materials for the boat (craft sticks, styrofoam, plastic cups, clay, etc…) or different materials for the sails (paper, foam, felt, etc…).

For more details and to see where I got my ideas from click on the 2 links below.  I merged the 2 activities together to create this one.

http://www.fantasticfunandlearning.com/mayflower-craft-and-science-activity.html

http://www.science-sparks.com/2015/02/21/materials-make-best-boat/

For another fun boat activity, check out What Floats Your Boat? on my Density/Floating page.